# Abstracts

**EM self-field theory: the electron in hydrogen atom**

*Anthony H. J. Fleming, Copyright (c) 2003*

**Abstract:** An electromagnetic (EM) self-field theory is developed for atomic systems consisting of charged sub-particles. An azimuthal modal spinor is chosen as a trial solution of the motions of each sub-particle and tested using Maxwell’s equations for particle-field interactions. Both the sub-particles and field are seen in terms of coupled spinors. Unconventionally, the sub-particle electric and magnetic fields are measured between centres-of-motion due to a coupling between a sub-particle’s rotational coordinate systems. Maxwell’s curl equations are seen as a balance of the electric and magnetic kinetic energies with a sub-particle’s total energy, and a balance of its electric and magnetic potential energies. The theory results in a system of inhomogeneous equations, the unknowns being the coupled spinors of each sub-particle, four equations for the electron in hydrogen atom, two conjugate pairs of equations. Planck’s constant is seen as a variable of motion. These four modal equations yield analytic solutions for the resonant frequency, the radii, Rhydberg’s number and Balmer’s series. The theory behind this solution may lead to an understanding as to how the strong and weak nuclear, the EM, and the gravitational forces, all tie in with each other.

**The photon and its energy**

*Anthony H. J. Fleming and Elizabeth B. Colorio, Copyright (c) 2003*

**Abstract:** The energy of the photon is described via the EM self-field model [Fleming 2003a]. The substructure of the ordinary photon has two sub-particles of equal mass and opposite charge. As in the application of the EM self-field theory to hydrogen atom, the photon has a total of five degrees of freedom, four associated with the electric and magnetic fields, and another associated with the ambient temperature. This mathematical model of the photon allows an extension of our understanding of the phenomenon of light. The rest-mass of the photon is considered non-zero. The eigenstates allow the photon?s velocity to vary from the quantum proscription. Many physical phenomena can be understood in terms of the model including strings, Bose-Einstein condensation and the layers that form within the ionosphere. This report, the first in a series concentrates on the photon?s application to ?hard? or “ordinary” physics.

**A predicted photon Chemistry**

*Anthony H. J. Fleming and Elizabeth B. Bauer, Copyright (c) 2004*

**Abstract:** The internal structure of the photon can be described via the electromagnetic self-field model (EMSFT) whereby the ordinary photon consists of two sub-particles of equal mass and opposite charge in dynamic equilibrium with each other. The sub-photonic particles are termed the ephectron and the phroton, corresponding to the electron and proton of the hydrogen atom. As in the application of EMSFT to the hydrogen atom, the mathematical description of the photon has degrees of freedom associated with its electric (E-) and magnetic (H-) fields , the electric permittivity, l, and the magnetic permeability, e, of a region. Since there are two fields per sub-particle (E- and H-fields), there are six degrees of freedom altogether. EMSFT provides eigensolutions for the simple photon and its compounds. Analogous to the spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, the simple photon can exist in a range of energy states that depend on the motions of the ephectron and phroton. Analogous to atomic chemistry, the photon exists as compounds wherein the various sub-photonic structures assume distinct entities. These compounds correspond to the bosons and gluons that mediate the weak and strong nuclear forces known to high energy physics. In regions where gluons exist, the equations controlling the fields are a modified version of Maxwell?s two curl and two divergence equations. For the strong force there are three curl and three divergence equations, there being a new type of field herein termed the nuclear field that depends upon compounded triplets of the ephectron and phroton. A photonic chemistry may be involved in energy/temperature dependent processes including the layered spherical structure of the ionosphere, the various snowflake structures, and magnetic flips of the sun the earth. A range of biological processes such as the cell cycle may depend on hydration structures found within DNA and other biological protein structures.

**Electromagnetic self-field theory: its application to hydrogen atom**

*Anthony H. J. Fleming, Copyright (c) 2004*

**Abstract:** Despite nearly a century of considered opinion to the contrary, an EM self-field theory (EMSFT) has been developed for atomic systems consisting of charged particles. An azimuthal spinor is used as a trial solution for the motions of each particle and tested using Maxwell?s equations for particle-field interactions. Both the particles and field are seen in terms of coupled spinors associated with electric and magnetic fields. Unconventionally, the particle electric and magnetic fields are measured between centres-of-motion and not between charge points. Maxwell?s curl equations are seen as a balance of the electric and magnetic kinetic energies with a particle?s total energy, and a balance of its electric and magnetic potential energies. The theory results in a system of inhomogeneous equations, the unknowns being the coupled spinors of each particle, four equations for the electron and also for the proton in the hydrogen atom, two conjugate pairs of equations for each particle. The modal equations for the electron yield analytic solutions for the resonant frequencies, the radii, Rydberg constant and Balmer series. The EMSFT equations for the proton give an estimate for the size of the proton